Link to Raad’s CV
Affiliated with HAMZA in Egypt
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1. Tell me about the technical requirements in Egyptian agriculture (Energy, Power, Heat, etc)... rural towns or villages, business and town Hotel, as well as gated community
11 of the 17 goals in the UN SDGs sustainable development goals - can be reached from one CSP plant if we built it in a poor village.
Majority of Egypt - 4,655 villages are very poor
Energy infrastructure is limited in those remote villages
100 Million people use 7% of the land near the River Nile
The farmers in the Nile Delta in the north are in a very crowded area.
The West and East deserts, East desert by the Red Sea.
Same environment by the north of Sudan - important to do something for these
What is the process for setting up power and water?
Clinic, Small farms, Cooling or chilling, Clean water (desal)
The microgrid setting up power (and water) from Dr. Buckley is seen by Raad as a strong option.
Paying back the money in 4-5 years with a profitable payback over 20-30 years for the system lifetime.
Raad is Iraqian Consultant Engineer and is able to see the Egyptian ecosystem from an outsider’s perspective
People want to see something work as a prototype before investing, this is not only in Egypt
Other applications like towers for mobile and GSM can be powered by a FS Microgrid.
Special environment is needed, with certain ambient temperature
The concentrate solar thermal is more appropriate in these circumstances
Rene and Raad have been working together with GSM in the Middle East
A typical farm in the Gulf - there is no more water and they want Greenhouses
To power these and provide water they will need to solve some problems to install a plant
The typical farm will need chillers to adapt the ambient temperature for the plants
The communication with Raad happens within days and they are willing to invest
2. What are problems to solve in providing agricultural services where it is needed most? What needs do communities have?
Raad has lived in Egypt since 2014. In 2015, Egypt had the most experimental land use for this technology. Frank Shuman installed the first parabolic concentrated solar in 1913.
There are over 8 hours of usable sunlight in Egypt per day, making the concentrated solar technology most effective to produce a large amount of usable power and heat.
33 degrees Celsius ambient temperature is the average in the Egyptian and Iraqi weather systems. The efficiency of PV becomes less than 10 % at higher temperatures, http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2013/ph240/alshakhs2/
like 45 or 50 degrees Celsius for more than 3 months annually . (June to September)
The LCOE, inverse in proportion to the time of energy production, in the graphs above show the importance, in the third graph, of energy storage to further reduce costs i.e. LCOE. With the FS Microgrid method of heat storage, this is the most efficient storage method in the middleast market with more than 33 degree average ambient temperature.
3. How much electricity, heat, power, clean water, and cooling do agricultural communities use?
Interconnections between multi-country grids can allow peak hour prices to be reduced by storing thermal energy generated by coal, nuclear, syngas, CSP etc. and other energy sources at low electricity demand times or when generation becomes more than load.
Also thermal batteries make renewable sources of energy and power even more valuable because it can reduce the problems related to transmission of electricity in a wide range grid, like frequency fluctuation, absence of Inertia in most renewable energy sources, and sudden power generation drop.
Manufacturing of thermal batteries locally will allow the prices based on the volume to remain affordable. With heat storage the cost will go down to the point where energy can be stored almost infinitely. The amount of energy used is currently based on the power cost and availability of a grid, which is often absent.
This means that wood and coal are used for cooking and heating. Electricity is not often used in these remote areas, unless they have a generator. Using Fossil Fuel for generators is very expensive.
In 2016 I had a chance to visit Wahat (Oasis) . I found residents of the west desert (near Libyan borders) 150-200 km away from Cairo have to pay three times the normal prices of the gasoline and diesel fuel in Cairo or other major cities. mainly because the roads were in a bad condition. And there is no pipe line to distribute and supply oil products to the remote areas The cost of electricity generation can be reduced by using renewable source off-grid generation to solve this problem.
4. What opportunities do you see with renewable energy in the community? In rural areas? At what capacity?
Farms (rural and urban)
The clean cooking is not available in the rural area means the people use coal or wood etc. for this purpose, and this leads to deforestation, pollution, and many health problems. also effect how hot water is needed in farming to clean equipment.
The renewable energy capacity to solve this problem would spread from farm to customers.
If we know the load that would be required for the towers to provide cellular service to rural areas, we could build the infrastructure. The backup power from heat storage to power and even generators and their cost would be estimated in the load and pricing for remote cell towers.
Water (Oil industry waste and clean water desal)
There is another approach in industries with heavy energy consumption, normal need it for heating the products to a high temperature like cement, steel, glass and ceramic … etc. At the end of the production cycle we need to dissipate this huge amount of thermal energy in the outer air, the best thing we can do is what we called Heat Recovery to store some of this heat dissipation in thermal batteries, and then convert it to electricity or else to use it again. If we reserve 25% of the energy (as an example) this means we have stored a clean energy that can be produced without more Carbon Emission, and this principle according to Kyoto Protocol means you can either sell it to another industry or use it as a tax-cut for you. This is called Carbon Emission Credit (CER), and we can mix this heat recovery with CSP collectors to increase the productivity and proftability
Do we know about grant opportunities with industrial organizations?
The Carbon Credits are a very useful way to offset taxes. Tax cuts are most beneficial.
Grants for agricultural and community leaders to meet industry needs?
There are only limited sources of electricity and limited industries to fund.
What sources of funding are available for communities and their projects?
For 1 MWh microgrid plant , means (theoretically) 8,760,000 kW of electricity a year and 0.000709 metric tons CO2/kWh of carbon emission only 6211 of metric tons cost $25/metric tons this means around 155,271 $/year to offset.
5. What issues do you face with electricity? Downtime if any? What temporary solutions did you use? How was it solved?
The downtime of energy is total if the cost of power is too prohibitive with gas and diesel generators. Rural communities will often resort to coal and wood for cooking and heat, forgoing the need for electricity. With no remote cellular phone towers, there is no need for electricity.
The younger generations are demanding access to electricity and they will push the market in the direction of finding the resources to provide rural cell phone towers and the affordable solutions to charge electrical devices for modern living.
Clean cooking technology will use either gas or electricity, but most countries in Africa and areas of India will not use these cleaner technologies. The World Bank states that an indicator for the clean cooking is one way to prevent health issues that come from coal and burning wood, as well as environmental concerns.
6. How is the cost of renewable energy viewed in your industry? Agricultural communities and their constituents
The cost of energy in general is crippling, so much so that the use of wood for heat and cooking causes deforestation, which further adds to the environmental concerns and health concerns when the vegetation in trees can’t process the carbon dioxide back into oxygen.
The thermal batteries are viewed as a very efficient and affordable solution. Spare parts from Fiats are used to melt down to iron. Different minerals, each month, 1.5 million in local currency, $100,000 per month for electricity. If you save 20% of the heat dissipated with a spiral tube with a suitable heat transfer fluid inside, on its way through the chimney to get back the heat and store it in thermal batteries, this is a very attractive option for the first experiment in this track happening now.
7. What barriers do you have to adopt renewable energy?
Before one week ago, Raad Al Jibouri finished a chapter to very well known research-center for a think tank in Egypt. That study contribution will be published soon as a paper to concern the decision maker in Africa affairs about renewable energy.
There are five grids in Africa in the chapter that Raad is providing. shown in the fig attached word document. These grids can be united. 2021 Tracking SDG 7 in the Energy Progress Report.
All the countries by the Red Sea in the East have grids. All the countries in the West on the Atlantic Ocean have electricity grids.
46/2 Sirmor Street road, Kaulagarh Road, Dehradun 248001, Uttarakhand, India
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Everyone is looking for clean energy, and investors are always looking for returns.
The water being used for EOR and other uses must be purified.
Oil is being purchased less because of the mess it creates and the cleanup required.
The trip to China to Shanyang University to see the Fourfold System
Everything on this trip was connected with Dr. Shawn Buckley.
Raghvendra has been in touch with Rene Francis and Dr. Buckley for over 8 years now
Surya Poudel is the creator of a cryptocurrency
Aquaponics and hydroponics are in use in India.
Aquaponics produce the fish, the vegetables grow on top of the fish.
The heat and power required for aquaponics in a 10m x 20m space
Vegetable and fruit with fish can be produced and harvest monthly
Only 10ft by 10ft space can produce all the vegetables you need for a year
In 2-3 months Raghvendra will be producing his own aquaponic farm
1. Tell me about the technical requirements at your temple (Energy, Power, Heat, etc)...
AC and Heaters are dependent on electricity, not geothermal.
Regular supply of electricity and 30 percent in remote areas are lacking electricity
The insulation for cold is not great. There is a government source of generators for remote areas.
The government of India is establishing large solar parks of 1 Gigawatt production, some states in Northern India, Microgrids are being installed in Eastern India.
The only concern is the cost - the upfront cost, not adjusting the cost for long term savings.
3-5 Kilowatts is the production capacity of some solar systems,
Our system is much better with long term solutions using generators for long term
Solar panels of 150 Watts are not as effecient as the new panels that can produce up to 300 Watts
Producing heat using electricity is not the most efficient.
12 midnight to 5am the power usage decreases when people sleep
This allows the heat to pull from the grid to heat homes in the cold of night
Every 6-8 years the battery pack with photovoltaic cells must be replaced
The capacity of PV cells over time starts to decrease, this is a concern with PV power
Temple power usage depends on their size. Every city has a temple.
The bigger the capacity, the fuller the voltage required. These temples in Gujarat and Surat.
Minimum of 5 Kiliowatt with 10-15 KW is required.
Much of this power is required for making food
Some temples are using steam from solar power for their cooking.
What is the process for setting up a temple? Tell me about your trip to China in 2015 with the Fourfold prototype.
Independent systems or plugging into the grid. Most temples already have electrical connections.
Solar panels can be used for their requirements. Good sized temples will also have their own generators. These systems are mostly 10KW systems. Morning prayer and evening prayer are the main times power is used, but also in the production of food throughout the day. This requires the 10KW system.
2. What are problems to solve in providing religious services where religious services are needed most?
For the problems in providing religious services, all challenges are related. All of the temples require opening early in the morning at about 4am. The sun is not up and the solar power will not work. Up until 9am the rush comes, and 9am to 12pm there is no rush. They still need power throughout the day but not that much. Early to rise and early to bed. After 8pm the temple is typically closed.
3. How much electricity, heat, power, clean water, and cooling do temples use? (How much electricity, How much heat, etc)
These systems are mostly 10KW electrical systems. For heat the cooking is done through natural gas, but the heating for the building is burning wood. The centralized system for heating should be there but often it is not. The heat can accumulate through solar energy instead of using charcoal or firewood. These progressive options are possible but considered expensive and are not common place.
Is there space for having more capacity for energy production? Generators don’t take up much room. Other solutions and the land they require become more complicated.
Enhanced Oil Recovery, EOR, is something used in India as another source of power. Gujarat has an EOR business case. The oil industry is working to replace the crude oil. To reduce the viscosity of oil, they take it out from the well and then into a pipeline. The crude oil is very thick and takes a great deal of energy to transport it through the pipeline. Heated oil also increases in viscosity for enhanced transport.
4. What opportunities do you see with renewable energy in the religious community? In rural areas?
Tell me about the capacity for renewable energy in your community.
To power temples with renewable energy would either require solar panels on the roof or a larger installation nearby. The land required for larger installations can be seen as a barrier to entry. If more than one temple could share the renewable energy, there is a possibility to combine land uses and install a larger production capacity.
The 5KW system on average would accommodate the 3KW to 10KW capacity temples have.
The temples will use all of their space for inside rooms for congregants to attend services. If there is an interior storage area for the heat sink, there needn’t be a larger land footprint. This and other ways to reduce costs and barriers are appropriate.
India’s prices for EOR are much better than China. Raghvendra’s system using hot water for EOR will contaminate the water. To process and reuse the water also required heat. There are environmental friendly ways to enhance oil production and transport for refining fossil fuel.
Renewable energy can be used in the system to make the oil more competitive in the price of its delivery to market. If oil companies pay for this EOR, this will introduce renewable energy into the energy ecosystem and could eventually overtake the use of oil products and provide electricity directly.
Do we know about grant opportunities with religious organizations?
Mostly donations support these temples and they have a lot of patrons.
These community buildings are the main point of the neighborhood and family.
To keep the temple alive the operations must be well-funded.
Grants for religious and community leaders to meet temple needs?
Grants are not a source of funding for temples in India.
Only individual contributions are the main source of funding.
What are sources of funding available for religious communities and their projects?
Other sources of funding don’t exist. It’s simply donations. No managed portfolios or investments.
No interest earned on capital investments or anything. It’s just straight inflow and outflow from locals.
Well-educated leaders direct the use of the funds in temples, but the society drives the spending.
5. What issues do you face with electricity? Downtime if any? What temporary solutions did you use? How do you solve electricity problems?
This differs in various areas of India. In some places there are very few blackouts. There are other places with no electricity. These areas need microgrid technology and other solution. Half an hour of downtime maximum in some areas, while other areas have up to half the day of downtime.
Uttra Pradesh may have downtimes of over ten hours. It purely depends where people can afford the infrastructure. The generators are always a way to improve the access to power and electricity. Small 5KW generators running diesel will be used to keep freezers and refrigerators running.
After the generator is running, it is not necessary to keep it running. Electricity is produced from a generator, the water pumps are the most essential part of life. If the water pump must be on, the generator must be used. Cooking, cleaning, water is used all the time in processes.
Availability of constant water shouldn’t be ignored in the process.
6. How is the cost of renewable energy viewed in your industry?
Religious communities and their constituents
Renewable Energy, if solar panels are used, the existed PV systems are viewed as comparable to other microgrid systems. The lower cost over time is a major vehicle for bringing the perception of cost down.
Electricity and steam for heat and power are one thing. Desalination of water and other water technology are uses of electricity that some at a cost higher than financial cost.
7. What barriers do you have to adopt renewable energy?
Cost is a barrier, but other barriers include the land and space a microgrid. Culturally in India, people are more interested in having renewable energy. It is also about sources of pollution. Clean energy and Renewable Energy are viewed as the same thing. Hydrogen cells and generators is increasing.
Electric Vehicles are growing in number, but the battery technology is dominated by China because of the Lithium mining that comes from Africa where China has cornered the market. Some new technologies are coming to replace the Lithium Ion batteries. The EV market is growing slowly. Tesla is discussing the production of a Gigafactory in India, and these discussions are going back and forth.
Tesla wanted to take advantage of UAE subsidy.
Dr. Amber Alayyan & Massimiliano Rebaudengo